Repair Windows Error 0x00000018    |    Fix Error Code 0x00000018    |    REFERENCE_BY_POINTER


STOP 0x00000018 : REFERENCE_BY_POINTER

STOP Errors are usually the result of a hardware malfunction or device driver issue. It is also possible to receive a Blue Screen Error due to bad system memory, malfunctioning power supply, components overheating, or hardware overclocked beyond its specification. In older versions of the Windows OS you may also receive Blue Screen Errors due to incompatible DLL files.

Since the only option when receiving a Blue Screen Error is to reboot, any unsaved data is lost. With that in mind, it is very important to eliminate these errors to protect your data.

Basic Troubleshooting

Troubleshooting STOP Errors can be a difficult and time consuming process. Try these basic steps to fix your own Blue Scree Error. We hope it will help you avoid an expensive service call and provide a rewarding experience of solving the problem on your own.

Advanced Troubleshooting

The following details are for advanced users. These are provided for your convenience and may help those with advanced knowledge discover the root cause of their STOP Error.


Stop 0x18: REFERENCE_BY_POINTER

The REFERENCE_BY_POINTER stop error code has a value of 0x00000018. This indicates that the reference count of an object is illegal for the current state of the object.

Parameters

The following parameters are displayed on the blue screen.

ParameterDescription
1Object type of the object whose reference count is being lowered.
2Object whose reference count is being lowered.
3Reserved
4Reserved

Cause

The reference count of an object is illegal for the current state of the object. Each time a driver uses a pointer to an object, the driver calls a kernel routine to increase the reference count of the object by one. When the driver is done with the pointer, the driver calls another kernel routine to decrease the reference count by one.

Drivers must match calls to the routines that increase (reference) and decrease (dereference) the reference count. This stop error code is caused by an inconsistency in the object’s reference count. Typically, the inconsistency is caused by a driver that decreases the reference count of an object too many times, making extra calls that dereference the object. This stop error code can occur because an object's reference count goes to zero while there are still open handles to the object. It might also occur when the object’s reference count drops below zero, whether or not there are open handles to the object.

Resolving the Problem

Make sure that the driver matches calls to the routines that increase and decrease the reference count of the object. Make sure that your driver does not make extra calls to routines that dereference the object (see Parameter 2).

You can use a debugger to help analyze this problem. To find the handle and pointer count on the object, use the !object debugger command.

kd> !object address

Where address is the address of the object given in Parameter 2.

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